World History for Latter-Day Saints
GOD AND THE UNIVERSE
“My suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.” – J.B.S. Haldane (biological scientist)
“Nature begins to present herself as a vast congeries of separate living entities, some visible, some invisible, but all possessed of mind-stuff, all possessed of matter-stuff, and all blending mind and matter together in the basic mystery of being… The world is full of gods. From every planet and from every stone there emanates a presence that disturbs us with a sense of the multitudinousness of god-like powers, strong and feeble, great and little, moving between heaven and earth upon their secret purposes.” – John Cowper Powys (philosopher)
“That they may see, and know, and consider, and understand together that the hand of the Lord hath done this, and the Holy One of Israel has created it.” Isaiah 41:20 (true prophet)
Since man was first placed upon this earth he no doubt wondered in awe at the bright sphere in the daytime sky and at the numerous bright lights in the night sky, and, like Haldane, began to ponder their mysteries. However, regardless of early man’s amazement, he was not left alone by His Creator, for God spoke to Adam, the first man in the Garden of Eden. “Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, nevertheless, thou mayest choose for thyself, for it is given unto thee; but, remember that I forbid it, for in the day thou eatest, thou shalt surely die.” Abraham 5:12-13; Genesis 3:1-3; Moses 4:7-9.
Note: A Savior was promised despite the relational break through disobedience.
“And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.” Genesis 3:15.
With the assistance of His heavenly angels, God continued to communicate with Adam and Eve over an estimated period of seventy years, since Adam lived to the age of 930. If his life span is based upon the definition of a day of the Lord’s time which is 1,000 years, then one may estimate Adam and Eve’s time in the Garden prior to their mortal state. During this time, they were taught the eternal principles of Father’s Gospel and His Plan of Salvation, preparing them to progress according to His directions and commandments, leading to eternal life and exaltation. “And thus the Gospel began to be preached, from the beginning, being declared by holy angels sent from the presence of God, and by his own voice, and by the gift of the Holy Ghost. And thus all things were confirmed unto Adam, by an holy ordinance, and the Gospel preached, and a decree sent forth, that it should be in the world, until the end thereof, and thus it was. Amen.” Moses 5:58-59.
Note: The Christian Gospel is about salvation through Jesus Christ.
Moreover, brethren, I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received and in which you stand, by which also you are saved, if you hold fast that word which I preached to you—unless you believed in vain. For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures. 1 Corinthians 15:1-4.
From the beginning of Adam and Eve’s placement upon this earth, God has continued to communicate and teach His children through His early prophets, Enoch, Methuselah, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham and Moses, thus laying the foundation for the Gospel and revealing to them all they needed to know, including His own identity. “Behold, I am the Lord God Almighty, and Endless is my name; for I am without beginning of days or end of years; and is not this endless? …Behold, I reveal unto you concerning this heaven, and this earth; write the words which I speak. I am the Beginning and the End, the Almighty God; by mine Only Begotten I created these things; yea, in the beginning I created the heaven, and the earth upon which thou standest… For I, the Lord God, created all things, of which I have spoken spiritually, before they were naturally upon the face of the earth.” Moses 1:3; 2:1; 3:5.
Note: God identified salvation being an innocent blood sacrifice not your good works.
And in the process of time it came to pass that Cain brought an offering of the fruit of the ground to the Lord. Abel also brought of the firstborn of his flock and of their fat. And the Lord respected Abel and his offering, but He did not respect Cain and his offering. And Cain was very angry, and his countenance fell. Genesis 4:3-5.
Complexity and Immensity of the Universe
Modern cosmology is the scientific study of the origin and fate of the universe. What is known today about the universe has gradually evolved through the studious efforts of early scientists from the Babylonians, Egyptians (Pharaoh’s wise men were taught by Abraham who received his knowledge from Father), Chinese, Greeks and Romans to our present day. Most of man’s true knowledge of the universe has been discovered in this century, and yet, as Haldane supposed, much is yet to be learned. According to Apostle John A. Widtsoe, “Earth, stars and the vastness of space; yesterday, today and tomorrow, and the endlessly increasing knowledge of the relations of forces, present an illimitable universe of numberless phenomena. Only as a whole, and in general outline, can the human mind understand the universe. In its infinite variety of expressions, it wholly transcends the human mind.” Rational Theology, Chapter 1, page 1.
Note: Atheistic evolutionary origin theories are flawed.
The idea of "creation with appearance of age" means that when God created, those things which He created might superficially have looked as if they had a history. When Adam was created, he no doubt looked like a mature adult, fully able to walk, talk, care for the garden, etc. When God created fruit trees, they were already bearing fruit. In each case, what He created was functionally complete right from the start—able to fulfill the purpose for which it was created. Stars, created on Day Four, had to be seen to perform their purpose of usefulness in telling time; therefore, their light had to be visible on Earth right from the start. God's evaluation that the completed creation was "very good" (Genesis 1:31) necessitated that it be functionally complete, operating in harmony, with each part fulfilling the purpose for which it was created. ICR.org
However, if we go back to God’s revelations to His prophet, Moses (over 3,500 years past), God not only showed Moses the earth world and its inhabitants, but also every particle of the earth, all of His creations, and His purpose in creating them. “…as the voice was still speaking, Moses cast his eyes and beheld the earth, yea, even all of it; and there was not a particle of it which he did not behold, discerning it by the Spirit of God. And he beheld also the inhabitants thereof, and there was not a soul which he beheld not; and he discerned them by the Spirit of God; and their numbers were great, even numberless as the sand upon the seashore. And he beheld many lands; and each land was called earth, and there were inhabitants on the face thereof… And the Lord God said unto Moses; ‘For mine own purpose have I made these things. Here is wisdom and it remaineth in me. And by the word of my power, have I created them, which is mine Only Begotten Son, who is full of grace and truth. And worlds without number have I created; and I also created them for mine own purpose; and by the Son I created them, which is mine Only Begotten, And the first man of all men have I called Adam, which is many. But only an account of this earth, and the inhabitants thereof, give I unto you. For behold, there are many worlds that have passed away by the word of my power. And there are many that now stand, and innumerable are they unto man; but all things are numbered unto me, for they are mine and I know them… And the Lord God spake unto Moses, saying: The heavens, they are many, and they cannot be numbered unto man; but they are numbered unto me, for they are mine. And as one earth shall pass away, and the heavens thereof even so shall another come; and there is no end to my works, neither to my words. For behold, this is my work and my glory – to bring to pass the immortality and eternal life of man.” Moses 1:27-39
Note: The Book of Moses had numerous corrections before the published edition.
The reason we know Joseph Smith changed passages in the Book of Moses after his first draft was written is because the LDS Church has two pre-publication manuscripts that clearly document the changes. These manuscripts are entitled Old Testament Manuscript One (OT1) and Old Testament Manuscript Two (OT2) respectively. OT1 was penned by Smith’s scribes as Smith gave dictation. OT2 started out as a copy of OT1, yet many changes were made to it after it was copied; words were crossed out, additions were made, etc. According to LDS sources: “The text of OT1 is one of the most significant documents of the restored gospel. In its doctrinal contributions it is on par with the greatest of revelations. But OT1 is not the complete and final text of the Book of Moses, because that is found on OT2, on which Joseph Smith made further inspired corrections and additions. The most important changes made after the original transcription were those that were inserted by Joseph Smith. Sometime after Genesis of OT2 was written, the Prophet revisited the manuscript to make further revisions. Some of those are editorial in nature and clarify and smooth out the words of the dictated text. But others are inspired additions and corrections that provide new insights or even change the meaning of what had been written before.” (History of the Book of Moses: Kent P. Jackson, The Book of Moses and the Joseph Smith Translation Manuscripts, Provo: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2005) richkelsey.org
Joseph Smith and God’s Revealed Cosmology
In America, the science of Astronomy and the known universe in the early 1800’s was quite limited and mostly inaccurate since there were no observations until after 1825. Because Joseph had little opportunity to acquire a formal education, he was essentially unfamiliar with the language of science of his day which is evident in his own writings. Where then, did he obtain his knowledge? After all, his teachings were in full harmony with the most advanced scientific thought of today’s twentieth century! Let us now address our attention to some of the eternal truths and/or principles of science revealed to him by God.
Note: The publication of Astronomy information began in America during the 17th century.
Note: Sidney Rigdon was the driving force behind early LDS false prophecies.
Rigdon reportedly received visions jointly with Smith. According to one account: "Joseph would, at intervals, say: 'What do I see?' as one might say while looking out the window and beholding what all in the room could not see. Then he would relate what he had seen or what he was looking at. Then Sidney replied, 'I see the same.' Presently Sidney would say 'what do I see?' and would repeat what he had seen or was seeing, and Joseph would reply, 'I see the same.' This manner of conversation was repeated at short intervals to the end of the vision". Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
Worlds Without Number Exist in the Universe
Dr. Erich Robert Paul explains his view of Joseph Smith and Mormon Cosmology. “Theologically, Joseph Smith presented a cosmology relating man, God, and the universe; religiously, his message was millenarian (millennium) and directed toward eschatological (finality of life or end of all things) issues; and, philosophically, his comic vision encompassed an astronomical pluralism that provided for the quintessential (clear or essential) understanding of postmortal existence… To flush out relevant origins of Joseph Smith’s private cosmic vision, one must explore the interplay of his vision with its most concrete manifestation – namely, the doctrine of ‘worlds without number’… The cosmic vision Joseph Smith adopted thus moved him into the ‘plurality of worlds’ idea in natural theology…but… Even though Joseph Smith used the plurality-of-worlds idea extensively, he said almost nothing about science, scientific cosmology, or the relationship of science to religion.” However, Father’s revelations to Joseph Smith were inclusive of many modern scientific truths of the universe and the world in which we now live which we shall now review.
Note: The proclamation of many stars predated Sidney Rigdon by thousands of years.
And behold, the word of the Lord came to him, saying, “This one shall not be your heir, but one who will come from your own body shall be your heir.” Then He brought him outside and said, “Look now toward heaven, and count the stars if you are able to number them.” And He said to him, “So shall your descendants be.” Genesis 15:4-5.
In light of modern scientific data about the earth and the universe, according to astronomers, we know that the earth and its solar system is located in the Milky Way Galaxy, a barred-spiral galaxy with winding arms containing an equivalent mass of 2.3 trillion stars which span all ages. It is estimated that the Milky Way is about 26 billion years old and comprises a visible disk approximately 30,000 light-years across. Our sun and its orbiting planets or solar system are about 30,000 light-years from the center of the galaxy, and appear to be nestled on the inner edge of a “spur” (an offshoot or piece of arm) known as the Orion Spur or the Spur off the Orion Arm of the galaxy. It would take, at the speed of light, 500,000 light years to fly clear across the diameter and halo of the Milky Way galaxy. (A light year is the distance that light travels in one year or a little under 6 trillion miles.)
Note: Nothing is for certain in the study of Cosmology.
Cosmology is very much a detective story, looking for clues or pieces of evidence that then allow the construction of the best model of what happened in the past and what will happen in the future. It is the weighing of evidence that is crucial in giving a sense of how robust the model is, and this “art” is quite difficult for the person without research experience in science. Christian theology must stand against the naive realism of some scientists and the media who present scientific models as the absolute truth on the way the world is. At the same time, it is not good enough for Christian apologists to try to win points in a debate by pointing out that as models change “they are only a theory.” The reality of cosmology is that it is a messy business, a subtle interplay of theory and observation, human judgment and provisional models that are subject to change as new data are gathered. Models take time to be constructed, tested, and questioned by the scientific community, and there will always remain surprises. David Wilkinson holds a PhD in the study of star formation, the chemical evolution of galaxies and is a Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society.
The Milky Way is the largest galaxy, and the nearest galaxy to the Milky Way is known as the Andromeda (M31) which is the second largest galaxy and contains a vast spiral system of stars with a combined light of over 2 trillion masses of stars over 2 and one-half million light-years away. The milky Way and Andromeda galaxies are members of a small cluster of about 35 local galaxies appropriately called the Local Group. A third spiral galaxy names M33 also belongs to the ensemble and is about half as big as Andromeda. Most of the other members are dwarf ellipticals and irregulars. As a whole, the Local Group stretches across more than 5 million light-years of space.
Note: Recent analysis suggests that 50% of the Milky Way was created suddenly.
How do we know how our Milky Way galaxy formed and evolved? How do we know the rate at which the galaxy’s stars were born, and how that rate might have changed over billions of years of Milky Way history? Like so many new insights about our galaxy over the past year, new answers to these questions have come via ESA’s Gaia satellite, and its second data release of April 2018. The University of Barcelona said on May 8, 2019, that a team of its astronomers – along with astronomers at the Besançon Astronomical Observatory in France – analyzed Gaia data to learn of a powerful star formation burst in our Milky Way some 2 to 3 billion years ago. They now believe this burst marked the birth of more than 50 percent of the stars in the galaxy’s flat disk. Earthsky.org
Twentieth Century Theories of the Universe
In terms of the progress of science in this century, it is important to understand the nature of modern science. According to Dr. Paul, “While the factual dimension of science is very large, while science can explain a wide range of natural phenomena, while science enjoys enormous status and possesses great authority in the modern world, science is still not a body of answers. Rather, science is a process, a way of asking questions… science is a human enterprise, and therefore science resides in the minds of human beings. As a consequence, science is shaped profoundly by human values, by human history, by the philosophical and, at times, even the religious and mystical presuppositions of the milieu in which science is practiced.” In scientific terms, “theory” is “truth” with a small “t” meaning that the truth is only tentative. A theory never has the dignity of being a fact! When a scientist says, “The theory of relatively has been strongly confirmed,” the scientist means that the theory is tentatively “true” and that temporarily, it has been strongly confirmed by a considerable amount of evidence. The theory thus remains “true” until another “truth” is discovered – the latter replacing the former. The most prevalent and continuous question of science concerns the status of scientific theories – when are they “true” or, indeed, can they ever be “true”? “For a theory to have any scientific status it must be subsumed in a research tradition which is a ‘set of ontological (nature of being) and methodological do’s and don’ts.’ Scientists never in an ultimate sense make truth claims with a capital T – rather, science is a human process that allows humans to build conceptual structures. As an intellectual enterprise, science is basically an endeavor that attempts to build a mental construct of human perceptions. Science, therefore, should never be confused with reality itself. The immediate consequence of this is that science, by its very nature, must change.” Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, pages 67-68.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
What do we really know about our universe? Born out of a cosmic explosion 13.8 billion years ago, the universe rapidly inflated and then cooled, it is still expanding at an increasing rate and mostly made up of unknown dark matter and dark energy ... right? This well-known story is usually taken as a self-evident scientific fact, despite the relative lack of empirical evidence—and despite a steady crop of discrepancies arising with observations of the distant universe. In recent months, new measurements of the Hubble constant, the rate of universal expansion, suggested major differences between two independent methods of calculation. Discrepancies on the expansion rate have huge implications not simply for calculation but for the validity of cosmology's current standard model at the extreme scales of the cosmos. Scientific American, Cosmology Has Some Big Problems, April 30, 2019.
During this century, many theories of the universe have been postulated mainly by American scientists which have greatly augmented man’s knowledge and understanding. Albert Einstein, in 1905, introduced his “theory of relativity” establishing an equivalence between matter and energy. Perhaps the best-known result is that matter and energy are interchangeable according to the simple relationship, E=mc2, from which it was deduced that the fusion of hydrogen to helium produces the energy of stars. Ten years later his general theory of relativity provided a profoundly different explanation of the relationship among mass, space, and time. Space is curved in the presence of mass, and gravity is a warp in spacetime. This theory describes the shape of the universe – closed, open, or flat – in terms of the mass that it contains. “Scientists could no longer speak of absolute measures of time, distance, and mass; rather, the events of moving objects – now considered as time dilation, length contraction, and mass compression – could only be measured relative to one another in inertial frames of reference limited by the velocity of light.” Erich Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, page 54.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
Although general relativity is not the only relativistic theory of gravity, it is the simplest such theory that is consistent with the experimental data. Nevertheless, a number of open questions remain, the most fundamental of which is how general relativity can be reconciled with the laws of quantum physics to produce a complete and self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
In 1922, Alexander Friedman, a young Russian mathematician showed that Einstein’s equations best fit the concept of an expanding universe instead of a static universe, eternal and unchanging. Later, Einstein grudgingly reversed himself. In the 1920’s, Vesto Slipher, working at the Lowell Observatory in Arizona noted a shift in the wavelengths of light from distant galaxies that soon became the key to understanding the expansion of the universe. He was observing a phenomenon first described by Christian Doppler in Vienna in 1842 and thenceforth known as the Doppler effect. “This shift in wavelength and the corresponding frequency applies to all wave motions, to sound as well as light. As the whistle on an approaching train speeds toward you the pitch sounds higher than when the train has passed and is traveling away from you. Slipher later observed that the Andromeda Nebula and other spiral nebulae appeared to be receding from the earth at rapid velocities, thus providing the first evidence of what had become known as the expanding universe.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
No field responsible for cosmic inflation has been discovered. However such a field, if found in the future, would be scalar. The first similar scalar fieldproven to exist was only discovered in 2012 - 2013 and is still being researched. So it is not seen as problematic that a field responsible for cosmic inflation and the metric expansion of space has not yet been discovered. The proposed field and its quanta (the subatomic particles related to it) have been named inflaton. If this field did not exist, scientists would have to propose a different explanation for all the observations that strongly suggest a metric expansion of space has occurred, and is still occurring much more slowly today. Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
About this same time period, Edwin Hubbell, using the newly commissioned 100-inch telescope at the Mount Wilson observatory in California, was able to detect individual stars in several of the spiral nebulae of the Milky Way. More importantly, his observations revealed that some of these were Cepheid variables, which can be used to determine distance. When Hubbell calculated the distance to these stars, and hence the nebulae they were in, he was astounded. While the Great Nebula in Orion and the Eagle Nebula in Serpens were less than 10,000 light-years away, the nearest of the spiral nebulae was over 2 million light-years from Earth, and turned out to be full-fledged galaxies. Hubbell then realized that our universe included far more than the Milky Way galaxy and was far larger and more complex than had been imagined. In just a few short years, scientists concluded that we here on Earth were not only not in the center of our own galaxy but that our galaxy was just one of many galaxies in the universe! In 1936, Hubbell had connected the amount of redshift to the distance from Earth of each galaxy; the greater the redshift, the greater the distance. It followed that the universe has been expanding from some point in time billions of years ago and that the most-distant galaxies have been racing apart the fastest.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope say they have crossed an important threshold in revealing a discrepancy between the two key techniques for measuring the universe's expansion rate. The recent study strengthens the case that new theories may be needed to explain the forces that have shaped the cosmos. A brief recap: The universe is getting bigger every second. The space between galaxies is stretching, like dough rising in the oven. But how fast is the universe expanding? As Hubble and other telescopes seek to answer this question, they have run into an intriguing difference between what scientists predict and what they observe. Mystery of the Universe’s Expansion Rate Widens With New Hubble Data, NASA, April 25, 2019.
According to Paul, Einstein’s theories of relativity were field theories which unable to explain other existing phenomena in the universe, such as “black-body” radiation or what is called “the scandal of the ultraviolet.” The work of a German physicist Max Planck introduced the “quantum idea” in 1900, while later in 1905, Einstein first suggested a new worldview incorporating the quantum theory. In the 1920’s and 1930’s, the work of Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and others developed quantum mechanics into its modern formulation. As a result, field theory was eventually undermined by quantum mechanics, which denies that matter or energy is continuously distributed throughout space as assumed in field theory.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
The world at the quantum level, at the scale of particles too small for the eye to see, is very strange. It's possible, for instance, to have two particles that are "entangled" -- that is, they function as if they were connected, even if they are many miles away from each other. New research co-authored by Francesco Marsili, microdevices engineer at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, makes use of this phenomenon in a technological advancement published in the journal Nature Photonics. Researchers succeeded in teleporting information about the quantum state of a photon, a particle of light, over 15.5 miles (25 kilometers) of optical fiber to a crystal "memory bank," setting a new record of distance traveled in this manner. The previous record in optical fiber was 3.7 miles (6 kilometers). This complex phenomenon is called "quantum teleportation." Researchers Advance 'Quantum Teleportation', NASA, November 20, 2014.
Dr. Paul offers a summary of current scientific thinking about the universe. “Although certain principles such as a rationally ordered universe and the concept that the universe operates temporally in the same fashion and the same degree, respectively, yesterday, today, and tomorrow, as well as spatially and isotropically in all directions and places, twentieth-century developments in astrophysics have fundamentally changed our whole conception of the nature of the observable universe and the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics have deeply shaped our understanding of the nature of space and of the cosmos generally and of how scientists understand reality altogether. Cosmologists now no longer talk of an infinitely extended universe; rather, they talk of a “space-time” continuum in which the spatiotemporal extent of the universe is unbounded but finite and in which the universe is represented, like the surface of a Euclidean sphere, with three, not just two, dimensions.” Erich Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, pages 55-56.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
How we were saved from a complete annihilation is not a question in science fiction or a Hollywood movie. According to the Big Bang theory of modern cosmology, matter was created with an equal amount of anti-matter. If it had stayed that way, matter and anti-matter should have eventually met and annihilated one to one, leading up to a complete annihilation. But our existence contradicts this theory. To overcome a complete annihilation, the Universe must have turned a small amount of anti-matter into matter creating an imbalance between them. The imbalance needed is only a part in a billion. But it has remained a complete mystery when and how the imbalance was created. Showing how the tiniest particles in our universe saved us from complete annihilation, Science Daily, February 3, 2020.
In 1988, a new book, A Brief History of Time, by Stephen Hawking (who was born on the anniversary of Galileo’s death in 1942) who is widely regarded as the most brilliant theoretical physicist since Einstein, and who holds the Isaac Newton chair as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, England, made a remarkable impact upon world scientists. His book, A Brief History of Time, has since been translated into forty languages and has sold over nine million copies. Dr. Hawking, after providing a clear and succinct discussion of the major theories about the universe, posits yet another possible theory based upon the combination of the principles of quantum mechanics and general relativity, arriving at a possible self-contained, unified theory of the universe, “that space and time together might form a finite, four-dimensional space without singularities or boundaries, like the surface of the earth but with more dimensions. It seems that this idea could explain many of the observed features of the universe, such as its large-scale uniformity and also the smaller-scale departures from homogeneity, like galaxies, stars, and even human beings.” Hawking also explores how this new theory might relate to God’s plan and purpose by quoting Einstein’s famous question, “How much choice did God have in constructing the universe?” “If the no boundary proposal is correct, he (God) had no freedom at all to choose initial conditions. He would, of course still have had the freedom to choose the laws that the universe obeyed.” (Italics mine.) In conclusion, Dr. Hawking asks “Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing? Is the unified theory so compelling that it brings about its own existence? Or does it need a creator, and, if so, does he have any other effect on the universe” And who created him? …if we do discover a complete theory (of the universe)… Then we shall all… be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason – for then we would know the mind of God.”
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
A group of astronomers at the Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe decided to test this theory by using the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii to look at the nearby Andromeda galaxy. If tiny black holes are out there somewhere, they reasoned, then some of them would be guaranteed to pass in front of some of the stars in Andromeda, distorting it slightly. That distortion could be spotted by the telescope. Over a period of seven hours, the astronomers stared at Andromeda and hoped to catch the telltale flicker of light that signified a miniature black hole. If Hawking's hypothesis was right, then you'd expect to see around a thousand such flickers. They saw one. While this doesn’t prove beyond a shadow of a doubt that Hawking was wrong, it seems like a pretty convincing death sentence for his theory. That means we have to continue searching for the source of dark matter in strange exotic particles we’ve never seen. Perhaps this mystery will never be solved. Scientists Rule Out Hawking Theory for Source of Dark Matter, Popular Mechanics, April 4, 2019.
In the 1990’s, astronomers have made many new discoveries and have offered many new theories about the universe in terms of both its cosmology and cosmogeny (origins). These theories have been revealed in current science periodicals such as Astronomy and Science, and include such theories as the collapsing, flat, bubble, and accelerating universe. An editorial by Floyd E. Bloom in the 18 December 1998 issue of Science reaffirms the continual effort of some scientists to tackle the big questions – how did the universe begin, is it expanding or collapsing, how did life on Earth begin, is there life elsewhere? New scientific evidence in 1998 has shown that the universe is flying apart at ever-greater rates – hence, Bloom and Science editors have selected the theory of the accelerating universe as the “Major Breakthrough of the Year.” Another theory, that of the existence of a repulsive force in the universe, a theory recognized by Einstein which postulates that in order to maintain a constant-sized universe, such a force was required to counteract gravity and to prevent the universe from collapsing. Today, newer data of the 1990’s from far distant galaxies confirm these discrepancies and resurrect the idea of a repulsive energy driving the galaxies further apart at accelerating rates. “Without question, the discovery of the accelerating universe and the resurrection of the cosmological constant fulfill our definition of a breakthrough as a rare discovery that profoundly changes the practice or interpretation of science or its implications for society.
Note: Atheistic secular cosmology scientists have been continually wrong.
The universe is getting bigger every second. Galaxies are flying apart from one another, clusters of galaxies are zooming away from other clusters, and the empty space between everything is growing wider and wider. This much was known since the 1920s, when observations by Edwin Hubble and others revealed that the cosmos is expanding. But more recently, astronomers found that the process is speeding up—the pace of the expansion of the universe is rising, so that galaxies are receding from one another faster now than they were a moment ago. Dark Energy: No Answers But More Questions, Scientific American, March 2016.
Who is able to say, theorize or speculate just what future discoveries of the unknown universe will bring? This year the world’s biggest telescope will be partially operational in the country of Chile – an observatory being built by the European Southern Observatory, and scheduled for completion in 2001. This very large telescope will have 70,000 times the light-gathering power of Galileo’s simple instrument and 2000 times the image sharpness. As man progresses on this earth in seeking new truth, Father evidently permits the discovery of new truths according to man’s capacity to receive them, for the benefit of man and within the realm of Father’s Plan and His own due time. Perhaps the only conclusion that can be made at this point in time is to heed Albert Einstein’s assertion that he never thought of the future because it comes soon enough!
Note: Perhaps the only conclusion is to believe valid Scripture.
He counts the number of the stars; He calls them all by name. Great is our Lord, and mighty in power; His understanding is infinite. Psalm 147:4-5.
All Heavenly Bodies Are in Motion
Joseph Smith taught that steller bodies are distributed throughout space. “And worlds without number have I created.” (Moses 1:33) “And there are many kingdoms; for there is no space in which there is no kingdom.” (D&C 88:37) While studying the King James Translation of the Bible in the 1830’s, Joseph Smith noted that in the Book of John, Chapter 14, Verse 2 should read: “In my Father’s house are many kingdoms.” Later, the Lord made known to Joseph a detailed description of different kingdoms of glory which He prepared for His children found in D&C 76 – the Telestial, the Terrestrial and the Celestial. The Apostle Paul also states in 1 Corinthians, “There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another. There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory.” “For behold, there are many worlds that have passed away by the word of my power. And as one earth shall pass away, and the heavens thereof, even so shall another come.” (Moses 1:35-38) “He hath given a law unto all things by which they move in their times and seasons; and their courses are fixed; even the courses of the heavens and the earth, which comprehend the earth and all the planets. The earth rolls upon her wings, and the sun giveth her light by night, and the stars also giveth their light, as they roll upon their wings in glory, in the midst of the power of God.” (D&C 88:43-45) “The sun, moon, months, and years, and all the days of their days, months, and years, and all their glories, laws, and set times, shall be revealed.” (D&C 121:30-32)
Note: God warns people to not be preoccupied with the stars.
And take heed, lest you lift your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, the moon, and the stars, all the host of heaven, you feel driven to worship them and serve them, which the Lord your God has given to all the peoples under the whole heaven as a heritage. Deuteronomy 4:19.
Dr. Paul summarizes Joseph Smith’s views on the plurality of worlds: (1) other planets of our solar system are inhabited by living, sentient, and rational beings; (2) the closed world of medieval cosmology was replaced with an infinite universe; (3) fixed stars are suns similar to our own and surrounded by planetary systems; (4) these planets are inhabited by conscious beings; (5) an infinite number of solar systems exist; (6) worlds have passed away and others have and are being formed; (7) worlds are governed in a hierarchical relationship; (8) every system of worlds has it own laws and bounds; (9) Christ made and/or makes all worlds; (10) different kinds of people inhabit different worlds; (11) the Earth has been the most wicked of all worlds; (12) resurrected beings also reside on worlds; and (13) worlds exist both in space and time. Erich Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, pages 85, 87.
Note: Dr. Paul was charitable with the false prophet Joseph Smith.
According to Oliver B. Huntington, Joseph Smith taught that “The inhabitants of the moon are more of a uniform size than the inhabitants of the earth, being about 6 feet in height.” “They dress very much like the Quaker style and are quite general in style, or fashion of dress.” “They live to be very old; coming generally, near a thousand years.” “This is the description of them as given by Joseph the seer, and he could ‘See’ whatever he asked the father in the name of Jesus to see,” (Journal of Oliver B. Huntington, Vol. 3, p. 166; as recorded at the Utah State Historical Society). Oliver B. Huntington wrote the proceeding statements in 1881.
Our Solar System Is Only One of Many
Joseph spoke and taught about stars of different orders which revolve around some one point or powerful star and controlling stars for each order. “And I saw the stars that they were very great, and that one of them was nearest unto the throne of God; and there were many great ones which were near unto it; and the Lord said unto me: These are the governing ones; and the name of the great one is Kolob because it is near unto me – I have set this one to govern all those which belong to the same order as that upon which thou standest.” (Abraham 3:2-3) Dr. Einar Erickson, a noted LDS scholar and geologist, states that Kolob is the governing star of this order of stars of the universe and is the greatest of 15 governing stars, nearest to the place where God dwells known as “E Beth Ka”., in the Celestial Kingdom, which is also man’s first residence in the spirit state. Kolob signifies the first creation and is thus the oldest star of God’s creations. God also revealed to Joseph Smith that “The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth; But they reside in the presence of God, on a globe are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord. The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim.” (D&C 130:6-7) Furthermore, the reckoning of God’s time, angel’s time, prophet’s time, and man’s time, …is …according to the planet on which they reside. Hence, “Celestial Time” signifies one day to a cubit and one day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years of “earth time.” “And the Lord said unto me, by the Urim and Thummim, that Kolob was after the manner of the Lord, according to its times and seasons in the revolutions thereof; that one revolution was a day unto the Lord, after his manner or reckoning, it being one thousand years according to the time appointed unto that whereon thou standest. This is the reckoning of the Lord’s time, according to the reckoning of Kolob.” (Abraham 3:4) Our Father thus dwells on a “Celestial Sphere” on one side of Kolob – apart from all the earths created by Jehovah and Michael under His supervision – which were placed on another side of Kolob, which is the governing body for all the earths created for the mortal habitation of man or all of God’s children. Other kingdoms such as the Telestial and Terrestrial, and many others which God created for the final habitation of His children are no doubt also geographically located on the other side of Kolob where God dwells.
Note: The book of Abraham was a mistranslation of purchased Egyptian funeral papyrus.
When the opportunity was extended to several Egyptologists to examine and comment on the eleven papyrus fragments from the Metropolitan Museum, the same papyri that once belonged to Joseph Smith and from which he claimed to have translated the Book of Abraham, each of them arrived at the same conclusion: the papyri were common funeral texts, all clearly dating after 500 B.C., fifteen-hundred years or more later than Abraham’s time, and having no connection whatever with the biblical patriarch Abraham. Dr. Baer of Chicago’s Oriental Institute identified the eleven fragments (and also an additional fragment from the Church Historian’s office that had been included with Smith’s Alphabet and Grammar material, for a total of twelve) as belonging to portions of three original papyrus volumes: 1) Book of Breathings “Breathing permit” for the priest Hor, son of the priest Osorwer and the lady Tikhebyt, as found on Papyrus Joseph Smith I, X, and XI. 2) Book of the Dead for the lady Amon-Re Neferirnub, as found on Papyrus Joseph Smith IIIA and IIIB. 3) Book of the Dead for the deceased Tshenmin, daughter of Nes-Khensu, as found on Papyrus Joseph Smith II, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, and IX (the fragment from the Alphabet and Grammar). By his own hand upon papyrus, page 61.
Joseph Smith, Plurality of Worlds, Temples and Celestial Marriage
Dr. Erich Paul adds notable observations about Joseph Smith’s “pluralistic cosmology” which extends far beyond the plurality of worlds solar systems and galaxies. “Fundamentally, the plurality doctrine is wedded to a complex fabric with both theological and religious dimensions. Theologically, astronomical pluralism is a necessary feature of the other forms of Mormon pluralism – wives and gods. Brigham Young later expressed Joseph Smith’s pluralism holistically. Speaking on plural marriage before a general conference session on 6 October 1854, Young clarified this radical feature of the restorationist gospel: ‘The whole subject of the marriage relationship is not within my reach or in any man’s reach on this earth. It is without the beginning of days or the end of years; it is hard matter to reach. We can feel some things with regard to it; it lays the foundation for worlds, for angels, and for Gods; for intelligent beings to be crowned with glory, immortality, and eternal lives.’ Within Mormonism the sealing of men and women is the underlying condition needed to attain godhood. In turn, God (male/female) propagates spiritual, and eventually physical, progeny that requires, of course, worlds for inhabitation. Thus the complex of pluralism – wives, gods, worlds – established the fundamental basis of nineteenth-century Mormon cosmology.” Erich Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, page 120.
Note: Brigham Young taught nonsense similar to Joseph Smith.
I will tell you who the real fanatics are: they are they who adopt false principles and ideas as facts, and try to establish a superstructure upon a false foundation. They are the fanatics; and however ardent and zealous they may be, they may reason or argue on false premises till doomsday, and the result will be false. If our religion is of this character we want to know it; we would like to find a philosopher who can prove it to us. We are called ignorant; so we are: but what of it? Are not all ignorant? I rather think so. Who can tell us of the inhabitants of this little planet that shines of an evening, called the moon? When we view its face we may see what is termed "the man in the moon," and what some philosophers declare are the shadows of mountains. But these sayings are very vague, and amount to nothing; and when you inquire about the inhabitants of that sphere you find that the most learned are as ignorant in regard to them as the most ignorant of their fellows. So it is with regard to the inhabitants of the sun. Do you think it is inhabited? I rather think it is. Do you think there is any life there? No question of it; it was not made in vain. It was made to give light to those who dwell upon it, and to other planets; and so will this earth when it is celestialized. Every planet in its first rude, organic state receives not the glory of God upon it, but is opaque; but when celestialized, every planet that God brings into existence is a body of light, but not till then. Journal of Discourses, Volume 13, page 271.
“This view of pluralism also has profound religious significance; within the Mormon concept of the Temple pluralism takes on a dimension beyond the theological relationship of these ideas. The temple not only represents the sacred place needed to consummate eternal sealings and blessings but also becomes a microcosm of the universe at large, entailing both symbolic and ceremonial representations of the various heavens of Mormon afterlife. Here pluralism is illustrated ‘as a program of intense and absorbing activity which (rewards) the faithful by showing them the full scope and meaning of the plan of salvation.’ Within this scheme of the plurality-of-worlds doctrine, Mormonism allows for the completion of the divine creation process. In this sense Mormonism possesses an eschatological (finality) orientation that looks toward pluralism in its various dimensions for its ultimate justification.” Erich Robert Paul, Science, Religion, and Mormon Cosmology, page 120.
Note: Jesus Christ did not value material temples unlike the Latter-Day Saints.
Then Jesus went out and departed from the temple, and His disciples came up to show Him the buildings of the temple. And Jesus said to them, “Do you not see all these things? Assuredly, I say to you, not one stone shall be left here upon another, that shall not be thrown down.” Matthew 24:1-2.
Matter in the Universe
The substances that make up the material universe are defined as matter. Modern science now identifies 114 forms of matter known as elements (and perhaps 8 more). The well-known “Periodic Chart of the Elements” found on the walls of classrooms in the public schools and universities provide a concise display and description of them. As early as May, 1833, Joseph Smith declared that… “the elements are eternal,” (D&C 93:33) and in April, 1844, stated that “Element had an existence from the time God had. The pure principles of element are principles which can never be destroyed; they may be organized and reorganized, but not destroyed. All matter as well as man is co-eternal with God and had no beginning, and can have no end.” (The Contributor, Vol. 4, page 257) According to Widtsoe, all things are material and there is no place for immaterialism in Mormon theology. Spirit is only a refined form of matter. It is beyond the mind of man to conceive of an immaterial thing. The distinction between the kind of tangible matter of this world and the spirit matter associated with heavenly beings in the universe is very great. (John A. Widtsoe, Joseph Smith as Scientist, page 14) As the Lord revealed to Joseph, “There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine and pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes; We cannot see it, but when our bodies are purified we shall see that it is all matter.” (D&C 131:7-9) Thus we see that man’s understanding of matter and even the universe is only partial, of a finite or limited perspective compared to the true knowledge possessed by God.
Note: The Apostle Paul noted the spirit and soul being different from the material body.
Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit, soul, and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1 Thessalonians 5:23.
Energy in the Universe
Energy is in constant association with matter and appears in many forms as light, heat, electricity, magnetism, x-rays, cosmic rays, microwaves, in a vast electromagnetic spectrum, all of which are used to do work. Energy is defined as the power of doing work. All forms of energy may be converted into each other. But 1850, numerous scientists had concluded that energy is indestructible for when any form of energy disappears it reappears immediately in another form. This became known as the law of conservation of mass which states that the mass of materials that take part in a chemical reaction is the same as the mass of the products. Thus, scientists now say that the total mass and energy in the universe does not change, but the quantity of each varies. Mass and energy are related by Einstein’s famous equation, E=mc2. Paul adds that about a decade after Joseph Smith’s reinterpretation of the creation process, four European scientists simultaneously and independently discovered the first law of thermodynamics, known as the conservation of energy. This fundamental law of nature demands that although energy may change its state it can never be created or lost. Matter, as one form of usable energy, cannot be created out of nothing.
Note: The Bible is at odds with atheistic secular scientists and LDS false prophets.
1) The Hebrew word for absolute creation from nothing is “bara’.”
Genesis 1:1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.
2) The Hebrew word for formation from existing elements is “yatsar.”
Genesis 2:7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.
Isaiah 45:18 For thus says the LORD, Who created (bara') the heavens, Who is God, Who formed (yatsar) the earth and made it, Who has established it, Who did not create (bara’) it in vain, Who formed (yatsar) it to be inhabited: “I am the LORD, and there is no other.”
The “Light of Christ” and the Universe
Joseph Smith taught that all space is filled with a subtle, though material substance of wonderful properties, by which all natural phenomena are controlled. This substance is the “Light of Christ, the “light of life” the “spirit of the Lord.” Its most important characteristic is intelligence, for it emanates from the Supreme Intelligence, God. From the revelations of God to Joseph Smith found in both the Doctrine and Covenants and Book of Mormon, we learn that it is the “Light of Christ,” the “Spirit of truth” which proceeds from the source of intelligence (the Godhead) which permeates all nature, which lighteth every man and fills the immensity of space. It is the means by which Diety (God, Christ and the Holy Ghost) is able to be in all things, and is through all things, and is round about all things. It giveth life to all things and is the law by which all things are governed. It is the light that quickeneth man’s understanding and is man’s conscience to know right from wrong. The light of Christ is enlightenment, knowledge, and an uplifting, ennobling, persevering influence that comes upon mankind because of Jesus Christ. Christ is the “Light of Truth.” “Which truth shineth. This is the light of Christ. As also he is in the sun, and the light of the sun, and the power thereof by which it was made. As also he is in the moon, and is the light of the moon, and the power thereof by which it was made; As also the light of the stars, and the power thereof by which they were made; And the earth also, and the power thereof, even the earth upon which you stand. And the light which shineth, which giveth you light, is through him who enlighteneth your eyes, which is the same light that quickeneth your understandings; Which light proceedeth forth from the presence of God to fill the immensity of space – The light which is in all things, which giveth life to all things, which is the law by which all things are governed, even the power of God who sitteth upon his throne, who is in the bosom of eternity, who is in the midst of all things.” D&C 88:7-13.
Note: Jesus Christ is the spiritual light that gives eternal life. He is not the light of the sun.
Then Jesus spoke to them again, saying, “I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life.” John 8:12.
B.H. Roberts, a noted LDS scholar and historian, believed that the “Light of Christ” included all of the attributes of Deity combined together in what he calls “The Divine Essence or Immanence, or one Spirit Essence in which all (members of the Godhead) are united. “This united force and power of all the Gods of the universe; from whose all-seeing eye there is no escape; from whom the darkness cannot hide thoughts or evil deeds; from whose judgment there is no escape; the Universal Consciousness that holds all things in an eternal Present; the Power that holds in balance the stars, and judges the thought and weighs the deeds of men; the Spirit that moves throughout the space-depths – throughout the immensity of space – and executes the decrees of the Councils of Divine Intelligences, from whom this spirit proceeds! Thus, the harmonized Intelligences of the universe – the Gods. Thus, One Spirit of the Gods – God immanent.” B.H. Roberts, The Truth, The Way, The Life
Note: The Latter-Day Saints or Mormons are polytheistic pagans.
I am the Lord, and there is no other; There is no God besides Me. I will gird you, though you have not known Me, that they may know from the rising of the sun to its setting That there is none besides Me. I am the Lord, and there is no other; I form the light and create darkness, I make peace and create calamity; I, the Lord, do all these things.’ Isaiah 45:5-7.
The writings of Joseph thus clearly indicate that the various forces of nature, the energy of nature, are only manifestations of the great pervading force of intelligence emanating from Deity. We do not understand the real nature of intelligence any better than we understand the true nature of energy. We only know that by energy or intelligence gross matter is brought within reach of our senses. In May, 1833, Joseph declared “Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither indeed can be,” and, “The intelligence of spirits had no beginning, neither will it have an end.” D&C 93:29
Note: The writings of Joseph Smith clearly indicate he was wrong.
For since, in the wisdom of God, the world through wisdom did not know God, it pleased God through the foolishness of the message preached to save those who believe. For Jews request a sign, and Greeks seek after wisdom; but we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block and to the Greeks foolishness, but to those who are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 1 Corinthians 1:21-24.
Many Other Worlds Are Inhabited
In the Pearl of Great Price as well as in the revelations received by Joseph Smith in the Doctrine and Covenants we find evidence that God provided other worlds similar to our Earth which would sustain mortal life. “The reckoning of God’s time angel’s time, prophet’s time, and man’s time, is according to the planet on which they reside… The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth, but they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire.” (D&C 130) God also told the prophet Enoch “And were it possible that man could number the particles of the earth, yea, millions of earths like this, it would not be a beginning to the number of thy creations.” Moses 7:30.
Note: Joseph Smith plagiarized the Bible and the Book of Enoch that was published in 1821.
And I saw something like a sea of glass mingled with fire, and those who have the victory over the beast, over his image and over his mark and over the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having harps of God. Revelation 15:2.
All Eternal Truths Come From God
Joseph Smith taught that “truth is the knowledge of things as they are, and as they were, and as they are to come.” (D&C 93:24) According to John A. Widtsoe, “A revelator makes known, with the Lord’s help, something before unknown. It may be new or forgotten truth, or a new or forgotten application of known truth to man’s need. Always, the revelator deals with truth, certain truth, and always it comes with the divine stamp of approval.” Jesus said in his conversation with Pilate, “Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Everyone that is of the truth heareth my voice.” “I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto The Father, but by me.” Jesus is thus “full of grace and truth” and “came into the world to bear witness unto the truth.” Jesus and his Father both communed with Joseph all the truths contained in the Fullness of the Gospel in order that Joseph could likewise commune with others.
Note: The Biblical God does not change like the LDS gods.
“For I am the Lord, I do not change; Therefore, you are not consumed, O sons of Jacob.” Malachi 3:6 Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever. Hebrews 13:8
The author would conclude, therefore that there is no existing conflict or difference between scientific and religious truths provided, however, that one has reference to the religious truths contained in the Gospel of Jesus Christ as promulgated by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints! “Teach ye diligently and my grace shall attend you, that you may be instructed more perfectly in theory, in principle, in doctrine, in the law of the Gospel, in all things pertaining unto the Kingdom of God, that are expedient for you to understand; Of things both in heaven and in the earth, and under the earth; things which have been, things which are, things which must shortly come to pass; things which are at home, things which are abroad; the wars and the perplexities of the nations, and the judgments which are on the land, and a knowledge also of countries and kingdoms, That ye may be prepared in all things when I shall send you again to magnify the calling, whereunto I have called you, and the mission with which I have commissioned you.” (D&C 88:78-80) “And verily, I say unto you, that it is my will that you should hasten to translate my Scriptures, and to obtain a knowledge of history, and of countries, and of kingdoms, of laws of God and man, and all this for the salvation of Zion.” D&C 93:53.
Note: Joseph Smith’s false prophecy of WWI had it starting in South Carolina.
Verily, thus saith the Lord concerning the wars that will shortly come to pass, beginning at the rebellion of South Carolina, which will eventually terminate in the death and misery of many souls; And the time will come that war will be poured out upon all nations, beginning at this place. D&C 87:1-2.
Mormon theology is the science of all other sciences and useful arts known and practiced by man in today’s world. It embraces all truth revealed by God through His chosen prophets and includes all that is useful, great and good, all that is calculated to sustain, comfort, instruct, edify, purify, refine or exalt intelligences. Mormonism will survive all religious disturbances and become the system of religious faith which all men may accept without yielding the least part of the knowledge of nature as discovered by scientists in the laboratories or in the fields. The splendid conceptions of Mormonism concerning man and nature, and man’s place in nature upon this earth are among the strongest testimonies of the divine nature of the work revealed by Father to His chosen Prophet, Joseph Smith, and the Restoration of the Fullness of Father’s Gospel in this, the Dispensation of the Fullness of Times! John A. Widtsoe, Joseph Smith As Scientist
Note: Christians will not believe LDS false prophets and atheistic secular scientists.
President Smith then stated that the meeting had been called, because God had commanded it; and it was made known to him by vision and by the Holy Spirit. He then gave a relation of some of the circumstances attending while journeying to Zion—our trials, sufferings; and said God had not designed all this for nothing, but He had it in remembrance yet; and it was the will of God that those who went Zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary, should be ordained to the ministry, and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time, or the coming of the Lord, which was nigh—even fifty-six years should wind up the scene. History of the Church, Volume 2, Chapter 13, page 182, Kirtland, February 14, 1835.
Note: LDS believed the above nonsense as LDS believe atheistic secular scientists now.
Before another General Conference shall be reached we shall have entered upon the year 1891. The speaker here read from Sec. 130 of the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, which relates to the coming of the Son of Man, and referred to some remarks made by the prophet, February 14th, 1835, at a meeting wherein certain Elders were told that they were called to go forth and prune the vineyard for the time, before the coming of Christ, even 56 years should wind up the scene, Continuing, Elder Roberts said, that these circumstances have called the Saints to believe that some great epoch will open at that time – the year following the present. LATTER-DAY SAINTS’ MILLENIAL STAR, No. 43, Vol. LII, Monday, October 27, 1890, page 675.
Note: Christians believe that God will renew the universe in the future.
It’s certain the universe had a definite beginning. Some compare the universe to a clock that’s running down. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that every energy change or transfer must be in a downward direction as far as the usability of the energy is concerned. Every man-made mechanical device delivers less energy than it receives, the remainder being dissipated in unrecoverable heat energy. The same principle applies throughout all nature. Suns and stars continually send out tremendous quantities of energy, most of which is lost in space.
This can’t go on forever. Either the universe must eventually die a “heat death” or some unknown principle or person must intervene to renew it. This can’t have been going on forever in the past. There must have been a beginning when the universe was much more highly charged with energy in a high degree of availability than it is now. Acts & Facts, Reason and the Christian Hope, February 2020, page 5.
Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Revelation 21:1.