Alma Chapter 59 Critique
Setting: Moroni asks Pahoran to
strengthen the forces of Helaman—The Lamanites take the city of
Nephihah—Moroni is angry with the government. About 62 B.C.
Verses 1-4: Now it came to pass
in the thirtieth year of the reign of the judges over the people of
Nephi, after Moroni had received and had read Helaman’s epistle, he was
exceedingly rejoiced because of the welfare, yea, the exceeding success
which Helaman had had, in obtaining those lands which were lost. Yea,
and he did make it known unto all his people, in all the land round
about in that part where he was, that they might rejoice also. And it
came to pass that he immediately sent an epistle to Pahoran, desiring
that he should cause men to be gathered together to strengthen Helaman,
or the armies of Helaman, insomuch that he might with ease maintain
that part of the land which he had been so miraculously prospered in
regaining. And it came to pass when Moroni had sent this epistle to the
land of Zarahemla, he began again to lay a plan that he might obtain
the remainder of those possessions and cities which the Lamanites had
taken from them.
Note: South American Pre-Columbian Indians had no writing systems.
Since the Inca Empire lacked a written language, the empire's main form
of communication and recording came from quipus, ceramics and spoken
Quechua, the language the Incas imposed upon the peoples within the
empire. Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
Verses 5-8: And it came to pass
that while Moroni was thus making preparations to go against the
Lamanites to battle, behold, the people of Nephihah, who were gathered
together from the city of Moroni and the city of Lehi and the city of
Morianton, were attacked by the Lamanites. Yea, even those who had been
compelled to flee from the land of Manti, and from the land round
about, had come over and joined the Lamanites in this part of the land.
And thus being exceedingly numerous, yea, and receiving strength from
day to day, by the command of Ammoron they came forth against the
people of Nephihah, and they did begin to slay them with an exceedingly
great slaughter. And their armies were so numerous that the remainder
of the people of Nephihah were obliged to flee before them; and they
came even and joined the army of Moroni.
Note: Solomon Spalding didn’t know about the Amazon River.
The width of the Amazon is between 1.6 and 10 kilometres (1.0 and 6.2
mi) at low stage, but expands during the wet season to 48 kilometres
(30 mi) or more. The river enters the Atlantic Ocean in a broad estuary
about 240 kilometres (150 mi) wide. The mouth of the main stem is 80
kilometres (50 mi). Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes
called "The River Sea". Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
Verses 9-13: And now as Moroni
had supposed that there should be men sent to the city of Nephihah, to
the assistance of the people to maintain that city, and knowing that it
was easier to keep the city from falling into the hands of the
Lamanites than to retake it from them, he supposed that they would
easily maintain that city. Therefore he retained all his force to
maintain those places which he had recovered. And now, when Moroni saw
that the city of Nephihah was lost he was exceedingly sorrowful, and
began to doubt, because of the wickedness of the people, whether they
should not fall into the hands of their brethren. Now this was the case
with all his chief captains. They doubted and marveled also because of
the wickedness of the people, and this because of the success of the
Lamanites over them. And it came to pass that Moroni was angry with the
government, because of their indifference concerning the freedom of
Note: Pre-Columbian Indians had no concept of freedom.
Taíno society was divided into two classes: naborias (commoners) and
mitaínos (nobles). These were governed by male chiefs known as
caciques, who were advised by priests/healers known as bohiques.
Caciques enjoyed the privilege of wearing golden pendants called
guanín, living in square bohíos, instead of the round ones of ordinary
villagers, and sitting on wooden stools to be above the guests they
received. Bohiques were extolled for their healing powers and ability
to speak with gods. They were consulted and granted the Taíno
permission to engage in important tasks. Wikipedia Encyclopedia.
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